During the period when given article for Socrat Janovich’s conference was written there was an important event — on July, 6th was executed 1000 to the first mention „Lithuania”. In Wilno have passed grate celebrations. The first persons of the Belarus state on them was not. But these events cannot be disregarded. The heritage of the Great Princedom Lithuanian is general history as Lithuanians, and Byelorussians. On this background, it appears, the actual will understand one of historical problems — who possesses history of secret societies of grammar-school boys and students of first third of 19 centuries? Whose national heroes are these people? Poland applies for this page of history also, considering the Belarus earths, as „the territories attached to Russia”.
Let’s pay attention to the points of view of various researchers of the Polish, Lithuanian and Belarus sides. The Polish historians almost unanimously consider all members of secret societies and circles as Poles. It is an axiom for them. For example, in „History of Poland” S.Kinevich about filomates, filoretes and radiant conducts conversation in the paragraph which is placed in section „Kingdom Polish and the Free city of Krakow”. And the named societies were not in Krakow, in general in Poland. 1
In the newest Polish historiography there are also other sights. For example A.Vitkovskaja has noticed, that within the precincts of university in Wilno there was a youth which has been brought up on the Belarus regional culture, culture of common people, „united in this city, within the precincts of one educational institution, felt uniform, powerful, authorised to keep the local feature community. 2 And moreover, the Lithuanian isolation became especially active part of their consciousness, their understanding of Mickiewicz reflects local character of education of generation of coevals the author and in other book „Rówieśnicy Miсkiewicza”3
In the Belarus historical science there was an evolution of sights at secret societies and their members. In days of the Soviet Belarus to history of these societies of societies have paid attention not at once. As a rule, in textbooks for schools and higher educational institutions about these organisations it was spoken together with a material about Decembrists. There were such estimations later as „Inspirer” of the Society of military friends” Michael Rukevich left the Polish organisation filomates», оn formation of sights filomates huge influence was rendered „the advanced Polish thinker” by professor I. Lelevel and Polish poet A.Mickiewicz. 4 When began to write about the secret organisations (Russian word of „association” was used) grammar-school boys and students put their activity in a Lenin periodization of revolutionary movement which has captured Russia from first third of 19 centuries. 5 In the book B.Klein „It is found in archive” there is article devoted a mug „Concordant brothers” in a grammar school of Svisloch. The author has defined character of activity of its participants as antiimperial and antifeudal, similar to actions of Russian revolutionaries. And in 2008 Klein has not changed the sight at this question. 6 But there were also other sights. For example M.Dovnar-Zapolski who has written „History of Belarus”, published only in 1994. In it there is a speech and about secret associations where it is underlined licvinski national patriotism of its members in opposition to the Polish patriotic direction. 7 To the period perestroyka there was a revision of sights, historians collected a material in the opened archival storehouses, and avoided to give estimations to categorically this or that object of research. For example N.Mohnach in J.Kovalevsky, T.Zan, I.Domejka’s research names „sons of the Belarus earth”.8 Specifies in interest of young men legends, legends, fairy tales, proverbs and sayings, songs and language of Byelorussians. But Mohnach does not carry friends to secret societies neither to Polish, nor to Lithuanian, to the Byelorussian of a part of patriots, defining their ethnic and general-political sights.
In independent Belarus there were independent sights at historical events which could be published. The part of historians modernised old historical myths, for example S.Taliaronak. By the way, the brochure of its old materials has been published by Institute of sociological researches at Administration of the President of Belarus. This writes histories all participants of secret societies were natives with small become Polish the Belarus nobility which considered „a princedom as a part of Poland” and set as the purpose restoration Rech Pospolitaia in borders of 1772. And consequently activity of circles has been directed on fanatical education of spirit of the Polish patriotism. 9 Though Taliaronak recognises also that the part of participants of societies is natives of districts of the Grodno province and Bialystok areas that they are interested in history of the district (beliefs, customs, oral poetic creativity). 10 Something similar writes also A.Sluka in the book „National idea”. This researcher is assured, that „student’s youth movement completely submitted to” the Polish idea”. The concept” the Polish idea „during too time was concrete and defined: idea of freedom and independence of the Polish state of the Russian expansion. And the Belarus part was considered as a part of this state. The Belarus revolutionaries have been brought up in” the Polish cradle”.11
In 2001 the author of these lines had a monographic, where presence of three directions in a political life of Belarus in 1772-1863 — Russian has been shown, Polish and Licvins. The author has tried to prove, that the Licvins direction was showed in the tideway of Polish as the Licvins separatism and the Licvins patriotism. In the same book there was a speech and about secret societies. 12
In 2001 and 2004 leave the book of historian Ales Smalianchuk „Between kraiovasciu and national idea”. In it V.Shved’s thought about the Polish patriotism, its component — licvinski patriotism proves to be true. In the same place the historian gives explanations of concepts „Pole”, „licvin” „karaniaz”, underlines their political character, enters concept „kraiowasc” for difference of sights licvins from Poles — local. 13 S.Pashkov in „the Cultural history of Belarus” referring to lists filomates, resulted by commission Novosilcev’s, asserts, that this society in the basis — association of the Belarus youth. From 135 persons 113 were from Vilno, Grodno, Minsk, Mogilyov provinces and Belostok area. 14 Z.Shybeka in the „the Sketch of history of Belarus (1795-2002) writes: there were representatives of noble family patriotic youth. They aspired to improve Native land position as which understood the Grand Duchy Lithuanian as province Rech Pospolitaia by formation. It is there and then written, that „language of the local people was natural language for the majority radiant. And a conclusion:” societies involved local youth in process of knowledge of the Belarus people „.15 In 2008 Shybeka the similar position was stated in section” by the Short sketch of a political and cultural life (1772-1917) in the collection „History of imperial relations”. Term introduction „Belarus regionalism” became feature.16 The Russian researchers addressed to a theme of secret societies from second half of 19 centuries. One of the first — S.Shalkovich. Its sights are visible from names of its publications „Northwest territory”, „the Polish propagation”. 17 The Polish orientation of activity of participants of secret societies is underlined. M.Korobka, and I.Kukalnik in the „Historical notes” had similar sights also. 18
In the Soviet Russia two works about A.Mickiewicz in activity filomates and filoretas were written by V.Landa. 19 HE has noticed, that „to members of secret societies in Lithuania in the beginning of 19 centuries attributed conservatism, hostility to Russian, nationalist limitation”. The author shows similar lines of these societies with early mugs of the Decembrists, close motives of their purposes, problems, ideals, programs, searches for connections between these organisations. There was I.Voronkova’s article in which sights Soviet histories are close to sights of Russian researcher S.Shalkovich. 20 Modern Russian researcher J.Labyntsev distinguishes Grand Duchy Lithuanian and Rech Pospolitaia and writes: „Unconditional assignment by Poland and the Polish culture earlier and now heritages Grand Duchy Lithuanian, including the Polish language, created by ethnic Lithuanians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians, generates the fair protest at contemporaries.” He underlines, that the local nobility till 20 century held in the hearts in remembrance about Grand Duchy Lithuanian, the lost Atlantis „. 21
Origin. At first it is necessary to understand terms „licvin”, „Lithuania”, „Grand Duchy Lithuanian”, „Pole”, „Rech Pospolitaia”. It will help us to identify members of secret societies, to understand their sights, the purposes, activity directions. Licvin — politonim which designated with 16 till 18 century of inhabitants GDL, irrespective of an ethnic origin and a religious accessory. Own name of population Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim districts Grodno of province, Minsk district, Sluck district (territory of historical Lithuania). Lithuania — in the end of 18 — first half of 19 centuries this term named преимущественноWilno, Kowno, Grodno, Minsk provinces, in a narrow sense words is a historical area of pool of the top and average Neman. Grand Duchy Lithuanian — (in abbreviated form GDL) — much national state, Baltic and Slavs with the superiority of the Slavic population which existed with 13 for 18 centuries. Rech Pospolitaia — federation to two state of Poland and Grand Duchy Lithuanian which existed since 1596 till 1795. 22The Pole — concept which in 19 century, its beginning, had not ethnic sense, but political, social (nobleman), religious (Catholic). The concept „nation”, characteristic for the Education epoch At this time dominated. 23
Born in the end of 18 — the beginning of 19 centuries (generation of a boundary of centuries) friends to secret societies belonged to the first generation which any more did not know the former states after violent sections Rech Pospolitaia. They have lost the Native land — Grand Duchy Lithuanian, but considered itself as its citizens, patriots. So, for example A.Mickiewicz in December, 1832 has signed the address to the Hungarian people thus „A.Mickiewicz, licvin”. Born in Nowogrudok I. Domejko on reproaches of friends, that he forgets the native land, becomes the stranger, has answered the following „It is known, to regenerate I never I will manage, and I hope for the God, that-... All the same I will die as licvin.” 24 And whom itself considered M. Rukevich, he in verses „With Pogonia has noted our banner”:
Дык калі паклічуць трубы
Нас у сонечны прасцяг,
Дружна ўздымем вальналюбы
Мы з Пагоняй нашай сцяг!25
А. Hodzka, it come from Wileika district, the son of writer Jan Hodzka Barejka known at that time in a ballad „Old man” asked:
Паспявай жа, вайдалоце,
Штось з літоўскіх нашых песняў,
Як сны б свае ў самоце
Мовай роднаю развесніў!
Ты спявай, каб стылі жылы,
Пра багоў пра нашых даўніх,
Пра князёў вялікіх слаўных,
Пра чароўны край наш мілы,
Пра лясы, палі і пашу,
Пра наш мёд, гасціннасць нашу,
Пра курганы, дзе ў спакоі
Спяць Альгердавыя воі,
Пра іх славу — з сілай новай
Мне спявай айчыннай мовай…26
Filomates and filoretes, zarane and members of other secret societies very much loved the Native land and did not forget about it even abroad. „Anywhere on the earth, — A.Mickiewicz wrote, — there is no such carefree life as at the Lithuanian villages... How many there pleasures, love... The God Can will not allow to return already by this life, but I should make something to keep expensive national grain (my italics — W.S.) Century and to allow to another to feel its value.” 27 We will recollect here lines from a poem „Sir Tadeush”:
Літва! Бацькоўскі край, ты як здароўе тое:
Не цэнім, маючы, а страцім залатое -
Шкада, як і красы твае, мой родны краю.
Тугою па табе тут вобраз твой ствараю28.
А. Petrashkevich extended in Lublin products Trenbicki and when asked, that it for the author, answered: „Licvin”, and in the letter where it is written, there are words Jan Chaсhot: „is local which so well write verses Not much...” We see, that they equated themselves to licvins and distinguished from kareniazes — Poles. In other letter Petraszkevich writes, what „Marjan when time will allow, let will write, and now kiss him from me and how — has grown fond valanians-licvins or not?” 29
The birthplace of members of associations. Under the created lists of members of secret societies it is originally possible to speak about a considerable quantity of natives or born in Belarus. So, among 87 radiant, for today it is precisely known about 47 members from the Belarus districts. Four members from eight Societies of six was from a province Bowl, From 19 filomates nine happened from Belarus. From 238 filaretеs — 68 licvins. In total on preliminary incomplete it turns out — 128 persons (or 36,4 %).
Founders of societies. Founders of societies filomates steels A.Mickiewicz, T.Zan, A.Petrashkevich, At sources was also J.Chachot. According to memoirs М Charnocki, the initiative in society creation „Thinking youth” (so the Society of six originally was called) was shown by group of four graduates of the Minsk grammar school who have entered the university Wilno in 1815. Them have joined in 1819 and others and on January, 18th, 1818 the first session has taken place. 30 From January till July, 1820 the Moral society uniting about 10 former grammar-school boys from Svisloch which worked as tutors or house teachers of younger pupils operated. The composer of the charter became J. Abramovich from Pruzhansky district of the Grodno area. 31 Томаsh Zan has created the legal organisation of a morally-educational and political direction under the name „Radiant”. 30-40 radiant became a basis for the Society filaretes which was initiated by the same Zan. Its authorships and the organisation Charter. Felix Ljahovich — the founder of a secret society in Bialystok and in Svislach. 32
The purpose. The purpose of participants of secret societies was very concrete: clearing of peasants of the serfdom, revival Rech Pospolitаia with preservation of an autonomy of Lithuania, revival of humane relations in a society. Ю. Gelman on interrogation in 1923 admitted, that thoughts of my brother in this letter concerned that in the created society to keep and support national spirit, equality, love to fatherland, study. To raise hope of clearing of the native earth. „And that was understood as it we know. 33 Behind officially confirmed moral rules of the radiant patriotic feelings hid. For example, a rule 7: „When you will feel love to the native earth you can be assured that has made the big step on a way of perfection of the heart. Under words attachment to the earth was available in view of not attachment to Russia in general but only to those provinces which made educational district Wilno” — wrote Nowosilcew. 34
Abstracts at sessions. Sights of members of societies well characterise their compositions and abstracts with which those acted at meetings. In them themes of the Native land, history of the state and right GDL, Poland and other countries sounded.35 At sessions of the Moral society abstracts eulogised L. Sapega, U. Kalantaj, Zaligowski, Zamojski, Tarnowski, idealised their life and activity. 36 The native of province Вrest Andrej Tadewush Kascushka was one of idols of members of secret societies. They glorified it, participated in Catholic services in October, 1817, that already was considered, as any official „the tool of political malicious intention” wrote. 37
Literary creativity and folklore. The „Lithuania, fatherly territory” was embodied by members of secret societies in the literary works. It were A.Mickiewicz, J.Chachot, T.Zan, A.Petrashkevich. For Mickiewicz rich with historical events Novogrudchina became an inexhaustible source of poetic judgement of the past. Stone walls of the lock in Novogrudok remembered much. Over them flew shades of great ancestors — Mindovg, Dz. Karybut, Wicen, Witawt. All was here: both activity of politicians, and royal management, and a victory and treachery. And nearby a life of simple people — peasants, handicraftsmen, and together with it pages devoted to love, work, legends, legends. „Тhe Singer of Lithuania” named friend Mickiewicz the well-known Russian poet A.Pushkin. 38
Jan Chachot has tried to create the literature in the Belarus language. Has collected the Belarus national songs and has published 6 volumes in the original. And in transfer into the Polish language. Yanovskys names following publications Chachot: Piosenki wieśniacze z nad Niemna i Dzwiny. Cz. I. — Wilno, 1837. — VIII+111; Cz. II. — Wilno, 1839. — 124 s.; Piosenki wieśniacze z nad Dzwiny. — Wilno, 1840. — XII+94; Piosenki wieśniacze z nad Niemna, Dniepra i Dniestru. — Wilno, 1845. — XVII+108; Powiastki dla młodych dziewcząt. — Wilno, 1845; Piesni ziemianina przez tlumacza piosenek wieśniaczych z nad Niemna i Dzwiny. — Wilno, 1846. — 58 s.39 Songs-ballads Chachot’s from a cycle „are interesting to the Song about ancient licvins till 1434” In separate verses are used national symbolises. Folklore motives. The poet, probably, was the first who developed the new, Belarus literature. 40 Here one of fragments of a ballad „Myshanka”:
Не знаю, дзе буду, памру дзе, не знаю,
Ды ўдзячны зямлі я, дзе вырас,
Я ў думках лячу зноў да роднага краю,
Здалёк мне відаць яго вырыс.
Мышанка мая! За ўсе краскі, за тое,
Што жыў тут, табою прыгрэты,
За светлае ранне сваё залатое, -
Прымі ж ты вянок мой во гэты41.
The hobby for folklore Tomash Zan was reflected in its poems „Snuffbox”, „Svitiaz-lake”, „Gipsy”. It supported Jan Chachot when that has started to write оn the Byelorussian, read its products at mass meetings, wrote music on verses of the friend and sang its songs „In album Stefan Dambrowski” Chachot at farewell during departure in exile on September, 13th, 1824 has written:
На камяні выбітае імя
Чытае ў задуме прахожы.
Вось так прачытае сяброў сям’я
І верш мой некалі, можа
І ты з імі ўспомніш паўночны віхор,
Што нас разлучыў, гэту восень.
Знай: хоць я на свету краі, каля гор,
Ды сэрца ў Літве засталося42.
Among pioneers of the Belarus folklore was and Anufry Petrashkewich. In the poetic creativity it used images and motives of poetry of Byelorussians, their traditions and beliefs. For example, idyll „Kupala” is based on known pagan rite. „Reflection about ruins Gedymin of the lock” the poet admits a poem:
Не згасне вера: продкаў слава
Нашчадкам будзе ззяць яскрава.
Ужо не ўбачыш тут нідзе ты
І следу гмахаў Ягелона.
Так час сатрэмо й замак гэты,
Схавае ўсё ў зямное лона.
Ды толькі сцерці немагчыма
Любові да цябе, Радзіма43.
Used folklore of Belarus people A. Codzka and Antony Edward Adzinec. At the first it is visible, for example in „Raspberry” ballads (the story about murder of younger sister senior), „Cornflower” (the legend about transformation of souls died in pigeons), and in a verse-fairy tale „Zuh” (a plot about the Pole grasped by soldiers-Lithuanians). Last plot is used also by the second poet in a ballad „Alesia’s dream” and „Mermaids”, and in a poem „Hohlik” . As to the Belarus language many knew it, and used from time to time on ceremonial meetings when congratulated somebody from friends. For example on a name-day A. Mickiewicz, Jan Chachot has written оn the Byelorussian the song:
Ах, што мы вашэці скажам,
Простага сяла дзяўчата,
Якія ж песнячкі звяжам;
У нас мысль небагата, у нас мысль небагата.
Але як мыслім, як чуем,
Так табе заспяваем,
Так цябе павіншуем;
Няшчырасці не знаем, няшчырасці не знаем.
Будзь, як лісічка, здаровы,
Як конік, весел пры трудзе;
Нех твае пісма і мовы,
Як салавей, голас будзе, як салавей, голас будзе44.
In 147th number of the newspaper „Sheets Roadways” („Ведамасці брукаваныя” — Вулічные навіны) the letter of „the Warsaw friend” with whom that reproached for language of the „Lithuanian” writers has been printed: „For Poles you write in a Chinese way, that they cannot understand you. You for Lithuania, instead of for the Crown write — think about less, whether you will understand in Warsaw, the main thing that in Wilno and in Lithuania you understood”.45 As before, and now Polish the researcher of creativity and a life A.Mickiewicz recognise language of products of this poet as language of the Belarus nobility which has got lines of Poles, a provincial literary language of” East suburbs”. The Warsaw literary critics contemptuously named it „smargonskaia akademia”.46 Wrote оn the Byelorussian not only Chachot. There are certificates, as A.Mickiewicz also wrote verses in our language. Not published, they probably have not remained. There was a case when by an anniversary Ales Belakoz the book of its memoirs has been published. In it has been mentioned, that somehow one Polish researcher on TV has noticed, that has found A.Mickiewicz’s verses in the Belarus language. But attempts to find this researcher have appeared are ineffectual. Itself A. Mickiewicz named our language „the richest and the purest”.47
Magazine „Geba”. Filomates considered that it is necessary to publish the magazine. Ю. Kowalewski wrote: Main back of our magazine should become increase of level of education that demands first of all improvement of ways of teaching of materials on history and sources, their skilful use for satisfaction of requirements of our corner of the world. It is desirable, that two features distinguished our magazine — a domestic orientation and originality. To the first line I carry everything, that concerns our earth, the information, standing attention of people, both political, and scientific which can wake love to the native land in hearts and increase the sizes of this love at patriots. 48 „With idea of the edition of magazine acted at sessions filomates. Planned to publish first number for new 1821 or for April, 1st. It would include products of natives of Belarus. Editor J. Malewski already agreed with publisher Moryc, but for technical reasons it was necessary to postpone the edition for later term. 49
The union of Naturalists. Worrying about expansion of the activity members of secret societies created new societies. It is a little known about the Union of domestic naturalists about which A.Mickiewicz has informed Ezowski. In the answer on May, 17th, 1820 the poet has written: „the Project about the union of naturalists very saving. It would be desirable only that both animals, and birds, and butterflies collected for creation of an office of the Lithuanian natural history. Everyone should put the description that heard about it that read itself at the offered exhibit, observed, as we do not know much or we know wrongly”.50 In June, 1820 the board filomates has charged Т. Zan to head the Union of naturalists and delegated to its structure of several members of the society and the Union of friends. 51 How many there was an union of naturalists who entered into it, unfortunately, for today, it is not known.
The geographical description. Participants of movement tried to study the territory during a vacation. Francishak Malewski and Mihal Rukewich have prepared and without the permission of the power have printed in library of Catholic printing house in Wilno instructions „Georgafichesky description”. It was distributed in 1821 to members of a society for studying and the statistical description of the church districts on such a question, as: a settlement site, its sizes, a landscape, roads, the rivers, channels, a climate, population position, economy development, a moral condition, customs, customs, material and spiritual culture. And still interested as wrote in the Third branch of imperial office: „Spirit at noblemen — love to the native land „,” national spirit of various categories of a society „.52 The Instruction for drawing up in grammar schools and district schools of records in subjects of various sciences”, prepared Z could become an example of a writing of the instruction „. Dalenga-Hadowski and L. Shyrma, and the sample -” Statistics of the Litovsko-Grodno province „I. Liahnicki. 53 In the literature write, whether that is not known somebody has created such review. We find materials which specify in presence of attempts of a writing of such reviews. In it I specify indications on a consequence which have made J. Zarzecki, M. Rukewich, T. Zan. 54 „The description of district Lida” has remained in funds LGHA. 55
Results. There is a known formula on which define consciousness licvins. It concerns only politik-legal sphere and does not touch ethnic and cultural. This formula well reflects double consciousness of this ethnic group in 19 century. It approaches and for definition of sights of members of secret societies. So on the brought attention to the question on participation of participants of secret societies to the Belarus or Polish circle of national heroes, it is possible to answer so: е made the majority of structure of secret societies and happened from among local population are representatives of the population of Belarus. It is necessary for historians to pay special attention on research of their activity. It is necessary to protect more the historical heritage, and to prevent nationalisation attempts by its neighbouring countries which researchers menacingly „adjust” the facts to the desirable answer.
Аўтар сцвярджае, што ў час, калі суседнія краіны (Польшча і Летува), раскрадаюць гістарычную спадчыну Беларусі, неабходна звярнуць увагу на многія праблемы сумеснай гісторыі. Ён канцэнтрыруе ўвагу на гісторыі патаемных таварыстваў гімназістаў і студэнтаў Віленскай навучальнай акругі першай чвэрці ХІХ ст.: філаматы, філарэты, прамяністыя, Таварыства Шасці, Навуковае і Маральнае таварыствы, Заране, Згодныя браты. На аснове артыфактаў (паходжанне сяброў патаемных таварыстваў; заснавальнікі апошніх; мэты; тэматыка рэфератаў на паседжаннях таварыстваў; літаратурная творчасць; адносіны да мовы і фальклора; спроба выдання часопіса „Геба”; стварэнне Саюза натуралістаў; падрыхтоўка геаграфічных апісанняў) даказваецца, што ліцвіны, якія складалі большасць складу патаемных таварыстваў і паходзілі з мясцовага насельніцтва, з’яўляюцца гістарычнай спадчынай грамадзян Беларусі, яе нацыянальнымі героямі.
Viacheslaw Shwed, professor, the doctor of history, managing chair the Byelorussian of culture and regional tourism of the Grodno state university of a name of Yankа Kupalа. Studies problems of history of Belarus of the end of 18-20 centuries. The author of a series of books about history of Grodno.
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54 ЛДГА, ф. 567, воп. 2, спр. 1314, а. 4 адв.
55 Віленскі універсітэт, аддзел рукапісаў, ф. 24, спр. 87, а. 2 адв.