Janusz Korbel, Skąd się wziął grunt sowy?

felietonisci-03Pomagając przy realizacji cyklicznego programu telewizyjnego „Czytanie Puszczy” przysłuchiwałem się rozmowie autorki programu z hajnowskim artystą, Wiktorem Kabacem. Powiedział, że urodził się pod samym lasem w niewielkiej osadzie, którą można by nawet nazwać chutorem, zwaną oficjalnie Minkówka, choć w okolicy nazywana jest Biehluki, od nazwiska mieszkającej tam rodziny. Kilka lat wcześniej odwiedziłem znajomego w innej wsi, Kraskowszczyźnie, do której drogę wskazywano mi jako do wsi Korchi (od nazwiska mieszkańców tej wioski). Kiedy opowiadałem o tym znajomym
z Polski, byli bardzo zainteresowani.

Ta „archeologia” nazw miejscowości naszego regionu wykracza poza zwykłe pole badań specjalistów, bo uczy wielokulturowości i pokazuje konsekwencje nieszanowania kulturowego dziedzictwa. Nie jestem językoznawcą, ale temat nazw i ich zmieniania wrócił do mnie przy pisaniu przewodnika po regionie Puszczy Białowieskiej i dlatego poświęciłem mu trochę miejsca. Profesor Michał Kondratiuk, slawista zajmujący się od lat językiem wschodniego Podlasia, pisze o złożonych związkach między językiem a narodowością. Zwraca uwagę, że mówiący na co dzień gwarą białoruską katolicy w okolicach Sokółki i Dąbrowy Białostockiej uważają się za Polaków, podczas gdy prawosławni z obszarów bliższych Puszczy przeważnie za Białorusinów. Jego zdaniem gwary wschodniosłowiańskie, będące elementem odrębności, lepiej zachowywane są wśród ludności prawosławnej niż katolickiej i tam, gdzie taka ludność przeważa, zachowały się lepiej także nazwy historyczne. Tymczasem administracja dążyła do ujednolicenia nazw, często nie rozumiejąc ich pochodzenia i znaczenia. Wiele miejscowości i miejsc w okolicach Puszczy Białowieskiej w ciągu wieków zmieniało więc swoje nazwy. Często miało też dwie nazwy równolegle. Wynikało to między innymi ze styku różnych grup etnicznych i z różnic między nazewnictwem ludowym/miejscowym a nazwami oficjalnymi, też zmieniającymi się w zależności od zmian historycznych administracji. Dobrze ilustruje to następujący przykład: Przez środek puszczy, ze wschodu na zachód biegnie droga zwana Pojedynacki Tryb. Kiedy pierwszy raz zetknąłem się z tą nazwą, przypuszczałem, że może upamiętnia ona jakiś pojedynek. Nic bardziej mylnego. Droga ta kończy się na zachodnim skraju puszczy w osadzie Sawiny Gród. Ludowa nazwa tej osady to Pojedynaki. Oznaczała ludzi osiedlonych na jednym gruncie lub mieszkających pojedynczo. Stąd i nazwa drogi, która z tej miejscowości prowadzi przez puszczę. Faktycznie, w XVIII wieku mieszkało tam kilku strzelców i parobków. „Dawid Kaliszuk, Paweł Janowski i Antoni Janowski – bracia niedzielni na jednym gruncie siedzą” (powołuje się na historyczne źródła filolog prof. Michał Kondratiuk). Co więcej, obecna nazwa osady wynika z niezrozumienia znaczenia słów. W wieku XVI było tam puszczańskie uroczysko Sawin Hrud. Hrud oznaczał suche, wyniosłe miejsce pośród bagien, a Sawin – to nazwa dzierżawcza, pochodząca od imienia Sawa. Nie rozumiejący wschodniosłowiańskiego języka Polacy, nie tylko w tym miejscu, ze słowa hrud zrobili „gród”, choć żadnego grodu w podobnych miejscach nie było. Polska administracja musiała przekręcać nazwy już bardzo dawno, bo na pruskiej mapie z około połowy XIX wieku figuruje nazwa Sowi grunt. Opisywana miejscowość nazywała się na jednej z map w okresie międzywojennym Gród sowi, a na innej z 1931 r Sowiny Grunt. Możemy być pewni, że w okolicach puszczy różne „grody” i „gródki” to przekręcone nazwy pochodzące od dawnego słowa hrud. W całej okolicy możemy spotkać liczne spolszczenia lokalnych nazw, np. nienaturalnie brzmiące dla języka polskiego „h” zamieniano na „g” i tak powstała nazwa Krągłe, chociaż historyczna nazwa to Kruhłe, Golakowa Szyja – w oryginale nazwa odimienna, pochodząca od mieszkańca nazywanego Holą lub Holakiem, Hramotne zamieniono na Gramotne itp. Jeszcze inne przypadki zniekształceń lokalnych nazw są po prostu efektem ich „spolszczania”: wieś należąca niegdyś do rodu Czochów i nazywająca się Czochy zamieniono na… Czechy, chociaż czeskiego osadnictwa tu nie było; Stepki (od imienia Stepan) stały się Stebkami, Kleniki – Klejnikami itd. Jarosław Janowicz, pasjonat oryginalnych nazw miejscowości, zauważa, że tak postępując należałoby spolszczać Halę Gąsienicową na Galę, Kasprowy Wierch na Wierzch a Bukowinę na Bukowiznę.

Reymanns_Special-Karte_65D_Szereszow

Przekręcona nazwa „Sowi Grunt” na dziewiętnastowiecznej niemieckiej mapie Reymanna

 

Ciekawą historię ma osada Bernadzki Most, której nazwa pochodzi od niejakiego Biernackiego, stolnika inowrocławskiego, któremu August III nadał 6 włók w Puszczy Białowieskiej, ale 30 lat później Stanisław August ziemię tę dał za zasługi dwóm Tatarom Aleksandrowi i Józefowi Adzikiczam – przetrwała jednak lokalna nazwa Bernaczczyna, pochodząca od pierwszego właściciela. Inaczej było z osadą strażników puszczy w uroczysku Dołhim Brodzie (Długi Bród), gdzie lokalnie zachowała się nazwa Mackiewicze od nazwiska jednego z pierwszych osadników z XVIII wieku, strażnika Daniły Mackiewicza.

Jest też problem z zamieniania „h” na „g” lub na „ch”, więc na mapach Puszczy Białowieskiej możemy przeczytać albo nazwę Tryb Sierganowski, albo Sierhanowski albo najczęściej Sierchanowski (podobnie jak samo uroczysko bywa różnie pisane). Mamy tutaj mnóstwo ciekawych zjawisk – z jednej strony nieco izolowane, o samowystarczalnej gospodarce niewielkie enklawy zachowywały swoje odrębne gwary, z drugiej mieszały się kultury, są więc i zwykłe przekręcenia, i ewolucje, i formy istniejące obok siebie, choć właśnie wynik niezrozumienia znaczeń wydaje się najczęstszy. Takie przykłady można by mnożyć, ale często nie jesteśmy świadomi, jak mogą one być ciekawe, ukazując kalejdoskop kultur na niewielkim obszarze, gdzie spotykały się różne języki i kultury, ciekawe dla odwiedzających Podlasie mieszkańców świata, w którym języki bywają zamieniane w uniwersalny system uproszczonych komunikatów. Na koniec, zagadką dla mnie pozostaje pochodzenie słowa „tryb” lub zmienionej pewnie pod wpływem „drogi”, „linii” formy: „tryba”, przypisanego drogom wytyczonym przez Puszczę w pierwszej połowie XIX wieku. Badacz historii kulturowej Puszczy Białowieskiej Tomasz Samojlik nie umiał odpowiedzieć na to pytanie. Na forum internetowym jeden z naukowców przekonywał, że jest to słowo pochodzenia niemieckiego (chociaż wówczas jego znaczenie nie bardzo pasuje do drogi), z kolei leśnik przypominał, że istnieje termin rzeźnicki „trybowanie” na usuwanie z mięsa niepożądanych części… Znalazłem też przypisanie trybowaniu znaczenia wybijania wgłębień w blasze, ale to też dalekie od wycinania prostych dróg w puszczy, chyba, że takie proste wgłębienia były kiedyś nazywane trybem? Ale dla laika są i trudniejsze pytania, np. jak to się dzieje, że często przy źródłach rzek są miejscowości o ich nazwach (Narew, Narewka) a rzeka, choć płynie czasami setki i tysiące kilometrów, ma wszędzie tę samą nazwę? Lingwistyka może nas zaprowadzić też w dużo odleglejsze miejsca i przeszłość, ucząc jak bardzo jesteśmy powiązani kulturowo, o czym przekonuje m.in. Colin Renfrew w ciekawej książce „Archeologia i język”. A tymczasem w Puszczy Białowieskiej powołujemy do istnienia grunt sowy, a może i niedźwiedzia?

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