Jan Maksimiuk. Kultura hramotnosti

cz10_2016_cz-b-6Časom, u zvjazku z mojimi zaniatkami pudlaśkoju i biłoruśkoju movami, mniê dovodiłosie čuti pretensiju, suť kotoroji takaja:

Ty dokazuješ, što kiryliciu na Pudlašy znaje štoraz menš ludi i što treba perejti na łacinśki alfabet, kob stało lokš čytati i pisati po-biłoruśki i po-pudlaśki. Ale sam ty ne proponuješ najlokšoho varyjantu pravopisu. Zamiś toho, kob vykorystati pôlśki alfabet, kotory vsiê znajut zo škoły, ty kažeš pisati z udziwnieniami: š, č, ž, v, ô, ê, iê. Našto nam siête? Čy ž ne možna pisati sz, cz, ż, w, uo, ye, ie?

Tak, možna pisati po-biłoruśki čy po-pudlaśki i pôlśkim alfabetom. Skažu naveť bôlš. Pôlśku movu možna zapisuvati, naprykład, čeśkim alfabetom, a čeśku – pôlśkim. Odnak ni polaki ne korystajutsie čeśkimi literami i praviłami, ni čechi ne korystajutsie pôlśkimi. Tomu što čeśka i pôlśka – osôbny movy, i kažna z jich maje osôbnu literaturnu tradyciju i osôbny pravopisny praviła. Kažna z siêtych movuv maje svoju osôbnu kulturu hramotnosti (kulturu hramotnych ludi).

Podôbnu sytuaciju majemo i z našymi movami. Ni biłoruśka, ni pudlaśka ne je dyjalektom pôlśkoji, a tomu jich tradycija hramotnosti je (i povinna byti) osôbnoju od pôlśkoji. Koli je osôbna mova (biłoruśka i pudlaśka – schôdniosłovjanśki movy, pôlśka – zachôdniosłovjanśka), to i naš alfabet razom z pravopisnymi praviłami povinion byti osôbny, svôj.

Varyjant łacinśkoho alfabetu, kotory ja proponuju vžyvati v „Czasopisi” dla zapisu biłoruśkich i pudlaśkich tekstuv, u vypadku biłoruśkoji movy vžyvavsie sporadyčno vže 100 liêt tomu. Jakichś 10 liêt tomu ja siêty alfabet (biłoruśku łacinku) troški dopovniv dla zapisu pudlaśkoji movy (dodav symboli ô, ê, ď, ť), i diêło pujšło. Nichto teper ne poplontaje biłoruśkoji čy pudlaśkoji movy v łacinśkum zapisi z pôlśkoju. Je svôj alfabet, je svojiê pravopisny praviła, i je vže svoja piśmova tradycija.

I je svoja kultura hramotnosti, kotora pozvalaje napisati vsie našy słova dokładno i odnoznačno i logično vytłumačyti vsiê napisani.

Koli kohoś ne perekonuje siêta argumentacija, ja podam i „gastronomičnu analogiju”, kob šče lokš było poniati, pro što ode hovoru.

Posnedati abo poobiêdati čołoviêk može i bez łožki, videlcia, noža, puvmiska i kružki. Zupu možna postaviti na stôł v horčkovi i popivati jijiê nahnom, mjaso i kartopli možna połožyti na gazetu, a kompot abo kavu naliêti do słojika po kvašanych hurkach abo marynovanych betkach. I diêło tože pôjde, bez łožki i puvmiska. Čy ž tak ne možna najiêstisie?

Časom čołoviêk tak i najidajetsie. Ale siêtoho ne robitsie na štodeń, bo čołoviêk – ne tôlko bijologičny organizm, kotory odčuvaje hołod, ale i duchovy tvôr, kotory odčuvaje potrêbu dopasovania do spôlnoji kultury. Čym dla rytuału zaspokojuvania hołodu je praviła zachovania pry stoliê, tym dla pudderžki piśmovoji movy je vłasny alfabet i pravopis.

Zachovanie i rozvitok svojeji tradyciji piśmennosti – to dokaz považania dla svoho narohu i joho movy. Koli vže ne možna pudderžati kiryličnoji piśmovoji tradyciji, davajte pudderžuvati svoju łaciničnu.

Problema tut napravdu nevelika – perejti na biłoruśku łacinku. Nevelika, bo kôlkosť času i vysiłku, potrêbna biłorusovi na Pudlašy dla siêtoho perechodu, prynajmi deseť razy menša, čym kôlkosť času i vysiłku, kotora jomu potrêbna dla opanovania kiryličnoji hramotnosti.

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