Фёдар Красюк: „У Дзятлаве павінна быць алея Славы знакамітых землякоў”

Гутарка

Фёдар Красюк, пасля заканчэння Мінскага педінстытута, вярнуўся на родную Дзятлаўшчыну. Працаваў настаўнікам, інструктарам-метадыстам на Дзятлаўскай базе юных турыстаў, адказным сакратаром раённай арганізацыі таварыства „Веды”. З 1985 года на працягу 24 гадоў працаваў дырэктарам Дзятлаўскага гісторыка-краязнаўчага музея. Цяпер Фёдар Красюк на заслужаным адпачынку. У вольны час цікавіцца гісторыяй населеных пунктаў Дзятлаўскага раёна. Аўтар кнігі „Зецела або Падарожжа па старых вуліцах Дзятлава” (Гродна, 2013, 2015).

 

Спадар Фёдар, Вы шмат гадоў узначальвалі Дзятлаўскі гісторыка-краязнаўчы музей. Што часцей за ўсё прыгадваецца з тых часоў?

– У тыя часы, калі я працаваў у гісторыка-краязнаўчым музеі, пачаў цікавіцца гісторыяй свайго роднага горада, збіраць звесткі пра вуліцы і мясціны, архіўныя фотаздымкі. Па-першае, я сам тут вырас, таму помню, дзе што знаходзілася ў горадзе. Па-другое, распытваў сведак са свайго і старэйшага пакалення. Пры дапамозе знаёмых збіраў інфармацыю і нават не думаў, што гэта выльецца ў нейкі суцэльны твор. Штуршком да выдання сабраных матэрыялаў стала падрыхтоўка горада (найперш – плошчы 17 Верасня) да 500-годдзя Дзятлава. Некаторыя архіўныя звесткі пра вуліцы і плошчу горада дапамог знайсці гродзенскі гісторык Ігар Трусаў, частка матэрыялу была назапашана ў мяне асабіста. Усё і склала маю кнігу пра вуліцы Дзятлава.

Niesciareuski i Krasiuk

Мастак і кераміст Мікалай Несцярэўскі і Фёдар Красюк (Фота Сяргея Чыгрына)

Раскажыце трохі пра сваю кнігу „Зецела або Падарожжа па старых вуліцах Дзятлава”, якая ўжо мела два выданні. Як яна пісалася, задумвалася, планавалася?

– Я назваў кніжку „Зецела або Падарожжа па старых вуліцах Дзятлава”, як светлы ўспамін аб сваім маленстве. Зецела – гэта балцкая форма назвы Дзятлава. Чаму балцкая? Справа ў тым, што вакол Дзятлава яшчэ ў старажытныя часы былі паселены балцкія плямёны прусаў і бартаў. Нягледзячы на ўплыў беларускага асяроддзя, беларускай і польскай моў, яны збераглі праз вякі свой говар. Жыхары навакольных вёсак так і гаварылі: „Пойдзем да Зецелы”.

Да абласных „Дажынак”, якія ў 2015 годзе прымала Дзятлаўшчына, было прымеркавана другое, дапоўненае выданне. Яно дадалося новымі звесткамі пра ўладальнікаў Дзятлава, планам мястэчка 1848 года і фотаздымкамі.

 Кніга адрасавана ўсім, хто цікавіцца гісторыяй горада Дзятлава. У той жа час, выданне можа стаць добрым падмуркам для студэнцкіх праектаў, падрыхтоўкі ўрокаў гісторыі ў школе. Апроч змешчанага матэрыялу, у кнізе пададзены немалы спіс літаратуры, які таксама можа прыдасца ў навуковых і краязнаўчых пошуках. Да таго ж, пагартаць кнігу будзе прыемна тым людзям, якія пераехалі з Дзятлава, але помняць і любяць сваю малую радзіму.

І ўсё ж пра гісторыю Дзятлаўшчыны і яе знакамітых людзей вельмі мала напісана і выдадзена гісторыка-краязнаўчых кніг. Чаму так?

Напэўна таму, што няма свайго пісьменніка-краязнаўца, які б ахвяраваў уласным часам са слабой надзеяй калі-небудзь выдаць сваю працу. Раённая ўлада не цікавіцца гісторыяй раёна. Няма грошай! – скажа яна. Але, калі быў загад выдаць кнігу „Памяць”, то грошы, памятаеце, хоць з цяжкасцю, але знайшліся.

Каго з вялікіх людзей Дзятлаўшчыны трэба сёння ўшанаваць? Пра каго са знакамітых дзятлаўчан сёння, наогул, забыліся?

– Я б у гарадскім парку зрабіў бы алею Славы сваіх знакамітых землякоў, людзей, якія нарадзіліся тут, нешта зрабілі для Дзятлаўшчыны (прыкладна, як у Свіслачы), не фотакарткі, а скульптурныя кампазіцыі. Прыклаў бы ўсе намаганні, каб зберагчы і адрэстаўрыраваць дзятлаўскі палац Радзівілаў, будынак сусветна вядомага вучонага Ігната Дамейкі ў Жыбартаўшчыне. Калі палац не ўключаць у наступную праграму па рэстаўрацыі помнікаў гісторыка-культурнай спадчыны, ён загіне, як амаль загінула сядзіба Ігната Дамейкі. Добра не ведаю, у якім цяпер стане парк у Міроўшчыне, дзе знаходзілася сядзіба Стравінскіх, сваякоў сусветна вядомага кампазітара, бо там даўно не быў. На тэрыторыі раёна трэба было б адзначыць месцы, дзе адбываліся цікавыя гістарычныя падзеі, дзе жылі людзі, якія, як маглі, нешта карыснае рабілі для свайго краю, паставіць ім помнікі. Напрыклад, Канстанціну Астрожскаму, заснавальніку мястэчка, Казіміру Сапегу, які пабудаваў дзятлаўскі касцёл, Мікалаю Радзівілу, які аднавіў палац. паэту Юльяну Корсаку, вучонаму Тамашу Жаброўскаму, мастаку Вікенцію Дмахоўскаму, якія тварылі ў XIX стагоддзі. Дзеячам нацыянальнага Адраджэння, пісьменнікам і паэтам Вячаславу Адамчыку, Аляксандру Бяленка (Н.Жальба), Івану Івашэвічу (Пятрусь Граніт), Івану Пышко (Гарасім Прамень), Сяргею Сіняку (Сяргей Хмара), Віктару Шымуку. Сёння мы зусім забыліся пра дзеячоў яўрэйскага складу насельніцтва Дзятлава, а сярод іх ёсць і сусветна вядомыя асобы. Але ў першую чаргу, трэба ўшаноўваць знакамітых беларусаў Дзятлаўшчыны.

Якія за Вашу бытнасць цікавыя экспанаты траплялі ў Дзятлаўскі музей?

За маю бытнасць самым вялікім дасягненнем, я лічу, было набыццё музеем керамічнай калекцыі, а таксама жывапісных работ мастака Мікалая Несцярэўскага нашага земляка. У музеі знаходзіцца на захаванні каля 300 яго работ. Удалося таксама паспець набыць цікавыя рэчы і з часоў Заходняй  Беларусі.


Сяргей Чыгрын 

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